Line follower robot

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Line follower robot

How to design an easy line follower robot using two transistors 

Sections of line follower robot

         Sensor which gives zero on black line and logic high on white line.

         Circuitry to drive two motors.

         Mechanical structure. 

Sensor which gives zero on black line and logic high on white line and motor circuitry.

    To design sensor gives zero on black line and logic high on white line. We need transistor on when black line come and off when white line comes. To make transistor on and off we require photo diodes which conducts in reverse bias on application of infra red light and off in absence of infrared light.

                                                  

                                                     

In the above circuit 



Component Symbol

Component 

Its working

L1

Led

To emit red light on the floor

R3

330 ohm resistance

Control current in L1 led 

R1

10 K ohm resistance

Passes leakage current from D1 photo diode to ground when D1 photo diode is off (To make sure Q1 remains in cutoff region)

D1

Photo diode

D1 photo diode when light falls it starts conduction. 

Q1

(BC547) NPN transistor

Q1 is NPN transistor which gives a current gain to the current comes from D1 photo diode.  

Q2

(BC547) NPN transistor

Q2 is NPN transistor which gives a current gain to the current comes from emitter of Q1 NPN transistor(Q1 and Q2 makes a darlington pair for very high current gain)

M

12v DC motor

 

12V DC motor to run the line follower robot wheel

Working of the above sensor circuitry

    When the sensor is above white surface led emits red light and white surface will reflect it back, photo diode will receive it and starts conduction. As photo diode starts conduction will ON the Q1 transistor, then it will ON Q2 transistor. Then current starts flowing through motor. So that when white surface comes below photo diode motor starts running.

Now Mechanical structure of easy line follower is as follows.

                                              

    In the above figures when black line comes below sensor then its corresponding motor will stop running. When white color comes below sensor its motor will start running. Left sensor is connected with left wheel and right wheel will connect with right wheel.  

    As per above figure we require two sensor circuitry. One to run left wheel and one to run right wheel. If white surface comes bellow both the sensor then both motors will start running.

Working of Overall easy line follower robot is divided into three conditions are as follows

         When black line comes between both the sensors.

         When black line comes below left sensor.

         When black line comes below right sensor.

 

When black line comes between both the sensors.

    If both the sensors are on white surface. Then both the wheels will run and easy line follower will move forward.

                                                  

When black line comes below right sensor.

    If right sensor is on black line then right wheel will stop. Then easy line follower robot will turn right.

                                               

 

When black line comes below left sensor.

    If left sensor is on black line then left wheel will stop. Then easy line follower robot will turn left.

                                                     

In the above figures when black line comes below sensor then its corresponding motor will stop running. When white color comes below sensor its motor will start running.

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